Articles for Volume 2

2020, Volume 2, Pages: 1-25


Previous studies have shown that personality traits especially narcissism are associated with selfie-posting behaviours described as self-portrait photos shared on social networks. The present study therefore investigated the prediction of different selfie-posting behaviours by HEXACO personality traits among adolescents controlling for age, gender and sexual orientation. A 19-item Selfie Frequency Scale (SFS) about the frequency of own selfies, group selfies and selfies with partner, and 60-item HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised were the instrument used for data collection from 296 adolescents (169 males and130 females) from 5 post-primary schools in the south-eastern Nigeria. Their ages ranged from 13 to 17 with the mean age as 15.04 (SD age = 4.25). The results suggest that Honesty-Humility negatively predicted all kinds of selfies; Agreeableness and Openness negatively predicted own selfie alone; while conscientiousness negatively predicted own selfie and group selfie. Emotionality and Extraversion positively predicted own all kinds of selfies. Moreover, female adolescents and not exclusively heterosexuals were more prone to posting own selfies, group selfies and selfies with partner. Implications of the findings concerning selfie-posting behaviours as representing some relevant aspect of individuals’ personality and social interactions were highlighted. As selfie-posting behaviours have become more trending these days, it offers additional insights on personality traits, self-representations and social interactions among adolescents.




Keywords: HEXACO personality traits, predictors, selfie-posting behaviours, adolescents

Postal Address: Department of Psychology, Faculty of Management & Social Sciences

Email address:

Guidance & Counseling Unit, Madonna University Nigeria, Okija Campus, Nigeria.

2020, Volume 2, Pages: 26-44


Researchers have proposed that factors such as age and gender could determine the intelligence of people. The dearth of literature on the assessment of the intelligence of school children using a standardised instrument (DAPT) in the general population and the prospect of forming a body of literature that can propose the use of DAPT for intelligence testing or to validate other intelligence tests are the basis for this study. This study focuses on measuring the intelligence of school children in Benin City, Nigeria, using Naglieri’s1988 revision of the draw a person (DAPT). A cross-sectional research design was employed for the study. The study was conducted in Benin-City, Edo State, Nigeria. A convenient sampling technique was used to select one hundred and forty-one (141) participants in which females were 63(44.7%), males were 78 (55.3%), the mean age was 11.21, and the SD was 2.475. independent t-test was used to analyse the data collected. The t-test showed no significant difference between male and female intelligence quotient (t-0.016: df=139; p>0.05). Younger participants scored higher with a mean score (106.03) than the older participants (98.03). The study has implication for using the test with children that are older than 12 because it seemed to be an inaccurate measure of academic performance and ineffective in screening for intellectual ability.




Keyword: Intelligence, School Children, Assessment, Draw-A-Person Test (DAPT).

Postal Address: Department of Psychology, University of Lagos

Email address:

2020, Volume 2, Pages: 45-64


The present study examined whether authoritarian parenting style and gender are correlated with suicidal ideation and if effective communication can moderate this relationship. Two hundred and forty (240) undergraduate students drawn from Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Anambra state Nigeria, participated in this study. The participants comprised 111(44%) males and 129 (56%) females. Their ages ranged from 15-30 years  (Mean age = 20.2, SD= 2.7). Three instruments were used to collect data from the study: The suicidal Ideation scale, Parental Authority Questionnaire and Assertiveness Formative Questionnaire. Moderated multiple regression was used to analyze the data. The Results showed that authoritarian parenting predicted suicidal ideation at a coefficient value of .16, effective communication negatively predicted suicidal ideation at a coefficient of -.28. Also, there was a significant interaction between authoritarian parenting and effective communication at a coefficient of -1.86.  Gender did not significantly predict suicidal ideation, and there was no significant interaction between gender and effective communication on suicidal ideation. It was suggested that effective communication skills should be part of family interventions for families whose child have suicidal tendencies.



Keywords: Suicidal ideation,  Authoritarian parenting, Gender, Effective communication.

Postal Address: Department of Psychology Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

Email Address:

2020, Volume 2, Pages: 65-87

The Impact of Social Media on Body Image and Assertiveness among Undergraduates 

Joy U. Nzenweaku, Victor O Odo, Nkechi A. Chukuemeka & Nkiruka Enukora


This study examined the influence of social media on body image and assertiveness among undergraduates. Three hundred students aged 18 -23 years (M = 15.58 years, SD =1.07 years) participated in the study. Three instruments were administered for the study. They include the social comparison Behaviour Questionnaire, Body Image Questionnaire and Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS). Moderated regression statistic (MRS) result revealed that social media significantly predict body image (β= -.38, t= -7.00, p<.01). The result showed that social media has a positive relationship with assertiveness among undergraduates (β= .08, t = 6.24, p<.01).  It was recommended that online measures be put in place by the government and stakeholders towards the use of social media. In addition, undergraduates should be sensitized through seminars and workshops on the need for assertiveness in the use of social media.



Keywords: Social Media, Body Image, Assertiveness, Adolescents

Postal Address:  Department of Psychology University of Nigeria Nsukka

Email Address:

2020, Volume 2, Pages: 88-104

The Prevalence of  Weapon-carrying/use amongst Senior Secondary  School Students in Anambra State, Nigeria.

Mary Nneka Nwikpo1, Elizabeth Ifeoma Anierobi1, Adeline Nkem Okeke 2 & Adaobi Patricia Ifejiofor3


Weapon-related violence has become an issue of global concern. Every country of the world, both high income and low income, is plagued in a very dangerous dimension, making the need to contain it a question of life and death. This study examined the prevalence and differences, and similarities based on gender in weapon carrying/use among ages 14-17 (mean age 15.5 years) in-school adolescents of Anambra State, Nigeria. Three research questions and one null hypothesis guided the study. A descriptive survey research design was employed in the study. The population consists of in-school adolescents in public secondary schools in Anambra State, Nigeria. A sample of 500 students, 258 males and 248 females, were used. The sample was selected using multistage sampling techniques, using sex as a stratum. Data were collected with a research instrument titled Gender Influences on Weapon-carrying Questionnaire (GIWQ), which was validated by two experts from Educational Foundations and Psychology, respectively. A reliability coefficient of 0.70 was obtained. Researchers and their assistants administered the questionnaire after the consent of the participants was secured. Data collected were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages to answer the research questions, while the hypothesis was tested at a 0.05 level of significance using Chi-square statistics. Result revealed high involvement of school adolescents in weapon-carrying (67.6%). It was also revealed that weapon-carrying cuts across gender. However, the rate of weapon-carrying and use was significantly higher with males than females. Reasons for carrying weapons include lack of attention to adolescents’ needs and adolescents’ affiliation with delinquent peers. It was concluded that there is a need to teach students the dangers of unauthorized weapon-carrying and use. School managers should take students’ grievances serious rather than resort to the brutal use of force to address every problem.



Keywords: weapon carrying/use, in-school adolescents, gender

Postal Address:

1Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Educational Foundations Department

2Anambra State Polytechnic, Mgbakwu, General Studies Unit

3Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam, Educational Foundations Department

Email Address:

2020, Volume 2, Pages: 105-124


This study investigated self-esteem and stress as correlates of suicide thoughts among university students of Benue State University, Makurdi. Using a descriptive survey design; the study adopted purposive sampling technique to select 402 undergraduates (208 males and 194 females) from all the 7 faculties of Benue state University, Makurdi. Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Becks’ Suicide Ideation Inventory and Life Experiences Survey (LES) were used as instruments for data collection. Analysis of data was done using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) at .05 level of significance. The study revealed significant correlation between the independent variables (self-esteem and stress) and the dependent variable (Suicide thought) on the following order, Self-esteem R=(400) = 0.216, p<.05,and Stress R=(400) = 0.174, p<.05). Among the recommendation is the fact that Lots of awareness and knowledge about suicidal thoughts among undergraduates should be created in order to provide a guideline for possible prevention program or treatments for those students who are experiencing the ideas of suicidal. This study came to existence as an attempt to raise the awareness about suicidal ideations’ risk factors and prevention so that university students in crisis may be recognized and helped.



Keywords: Stress, Self-esteem, Suicide thoughts. Undergraduates

Postal Address: Department of Educational Psychology/Guidance and Counselling Alvan Ikoku Federal college of Education, Owerri.

Email Address:

Phone: 08036747320

2020, Volume 2, Pages: 125-158

Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Social Anxiety as Factors in Suicidal Ideation among Adolescents

Juliet Ifeoma Nwufo, John E. Eze, Prosper Onwuaduochi, , Ubom Aniekan Smart, & Chiagoziem Isaac Aneke.


Suicide is currently one of the leading causes of death for young people. The rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviours have been observed to increase exponentially at the transition from childhood into adolescence. The strongest predictor of suicidal behaviour is suicidal ideation.  Age of onset, frequency, and duration of suicidal ideation has been shown to predict future suicide attempts among adolescents. Thus, a clear understanding of factors related to the increase in suicidal ideation from early to late adolescence is an important public health priority. In order to prevent suicide attempts and completions, we must understand their most relevant precursor – suicidal ideation. Although there is abundant literature indicating a global prevalence of suicidal attempt in a non-clinical sample, there is a dearth of literature on behavioural and psychosocial correlates of suicidal ideation among adolescents in Nigeria. We, therefore, investigated whether body dysmorphic disorder and social anxiety were associated with suicidal ideation among 400 students in southeast Nigeria (249 females and 151 males), aged 13-19 years, with a mean age of 15.93 years. Applying a cross-sectional design, participants completed Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire, Social Phobia Scale, and Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression results showed that body dysmorphic disorder was a significant positive predictor of suicidal ideation, β = .23, t = 4.66, p < .001, while social anxiety did not predict suicidal ideation, β = .11, t = 1.45. We conclude that body dysmorphic disorder should not be neglected in suicide prevention programmes for adolescent students.



Keywords: Adolescents, Body dysmorphic disorder, social anxiety, and suicidal ideation

Postal Address: Department of Psychology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Email Address:

2020, Volume 2, Pages: 159-185

Academic Stress Coping And Resilience As Predictors of Suicidal Ideation Among Adolescents 

Kalu T. U. Ogba1, Ifeoma J. Nwufo1, Oluchi M. Ogba2, Felicia T. Udofia1, & Cynthia N. Chiejina1


The study adopted a cross-sectional design to examine academic stress, coping and resilience as predictors of suicidal ideation among undergraduate students of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. A total of three hundred and sixty (360) participants (214; 59.4% males and 146; 40.6% females) participated in the study. Participants were drawn using the probability sampling technique and were administered a questionnaire where they were clustered in the university. Four instruments were used in the collection of data, namely: Lakaev Academic Stress Response Scale (LASRS), Brief Cope Inventory (B-COPE), Resilience Scale (RS-14), and Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI). Three hypotheses were postulated and tested. The multiple regression analysis results showed that while academic stress predicted suicidal ideation (β = .13, p < .05), coping did not. Resilience negatively predicted suicidal ideation (β = -.24, p < .01). Findings offer some directions and focus on preventing suicidal ideation by initiating programs that teach and promote students’ resilient academic skills and ability to bounce back while positively coping after stressful academic challenges, which will help alleviate adolescents’ suicidal thoughts.



Keywords: Adolescents, Academic Stress, Coping, Resilience, Suicidal Ideation

Postal Address:

1Department of Psychology University of Nigeria, Nsukka

2Faculty of Law Abia State University, Uturu

Email Address: