Articles for Volume 3

2023, Volume 3, Pages: 1 – 21


Anti-social behaviours (such as fighting, drug abuse, disregard for community safety, cultism, rudeness, vandalism, disorderly behaviour etc.) are acts that create problems for the community.

It therefore important to know which gender might be more involved in the acts and also if controlling one’s behaviour, emotions, and thoughts could predict anti-social behaviour. Therefore, the present study examined how gender and self-regulation decide anti-social behaviours among undergraduates.

The participants comprised 620 students (280 males; 340 females) whose mean age was 20.89 years (SD=3.33) with age range of 16 to 33 years. Brief Anti-social Behaviour Scale and Self-Regulation Questionnaire were the psychological scales used in this study.

Findings from the study revealed that gender significantly predicted anti-social behavior such that male undergraduates had higher level of anti-social behaviour compared to their female counterparts. Also, it was shown that self-regulation significantly predicted anti-social behavior among the participants.

In order to curb anti-social behaviour among the undergraduates, the study recommended that University managements should allow psychological seminars and workshops that will enhance the self-regulation of (male) undergraduates.

It is also recommended that parents and guardians should report any behaviour that is against the norm of the society in their wards to Psychologists and finally, undergraduates should be encouraged to spend their time on meaningful extra-curricular activities such as sports and community services.

Keywords: Anti-social behaviour, gender, self-regulation, undergraduates

Postal Address: Department of Pure and Applied Psychology, Faculty of the Social Sciences, Adekunle Ajasin University, PMB 001, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

Email address:

Phone Number: +234 806 911 8568

2023, Volume 3, Pages: 22 – 41


Researchers have indicated that internally displaced adolescents suffer a series of Psychological problems. These have some adverse effects on their ability to develop resilience which is central to their psychological outcomes. This study therefore investigated Psycho-demographic predictors of resilience among institutionalized internally displaced adolescents in Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria.

Cross sectional survey research design was adopted for the study. Data was gathered from one hundred and ninety four (194) internally displaced purposively selected adolescents from Abeokuta with the mean age of 15.1 and Standard deviation of 2.14. Two hypotheses were generated and tested in the study using multiple regression analysis and t-test for independent samples.

Findings revealed that social support, depression and stress were joint significant predictors of resilience among the institutionalized internally displaced adolescents in Abeokuta, Ogun State. High scores on resilience among the participants was associated with high social support, low self-reported depression and low stress. Both male and female participants in this study show similar levels of resilience as there were no significant gender differences. It was concluded that social support, depression and stress are predictors of resilience among internally displaced adolescents in Abeokuta.

Based on the findings of the study, the researchers recommended that internally displaced adolescents should be given proper attention on their mental health. Also, the government should provide necessary support to the IDP camps by providing them with social amenities, education and counseling facilities which can in turn contribute to their mental health improvement and development.

Keywords: Resilience, Depression, Social Support, Stress, Institutionalized-Internally-Displaced Adolescents.

Postal Address:
1Department of Psychology, Lead City University, Ibadan
2Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan

Corresponding Author’s Email Address:

2023, Volume 3, Pages: 42 – 56


COVID-19 is a global pandemic that ravaged different aspect of human existence. The pandemic affected all ages differently and the young person’s relationships were also affected especially during the school closure.

The objective of this study was to explore the coping mechanism of emerging adults who are university students that experienced romantic relationship breakups during the pandemic due to the lockdown. 

It was hypothesized that males would have a better coping strategy than females. The role of self esteem and parenting styles were also hypothesized in to see if they would correlate with the coping strategy. 200 (46%, males 54% Females) emerging adults who had experienced at least one romantic breakups between year 2020/2021 filled the survey online. 

The questionnaire used are Parent acceptance scale, Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES) and Emotional Approach Coping Scale (EACS). The result showed no significant difference in the coping strategy used by both genders t(198) =-.189, p>0.05. Only authoritative parenting style was found to be negatively related to coping strategy (r=.158, p<0.05) out of the three dimensions of parenting styles. Lastly, self-esteem was not significantly related to breakup coping strategy (r=.036, p>0.05). 

The results were discussed with extant literature and recommendations were made. The study concluded that humans have to develop context-contingent strategies to solve life challenges.

Keywords: Coping Strategy, COVID-19, Parenting Styles, Romantic relationship, Self-esteem

Postal Address: Department of Psychology, University of Lagos

Email addresses:,

2023, Volume 3, Pages: 57 – 73


It has been discovered that having poor self-control as a youngster foretells disastrous adult outcomes that increase societal expenditures for things like health care, financial reliance, and crime.

Hence, the marshmallow experiment on self-control among Agbowo Ibadan primary school students is replicated in this study. An experimental design was used in the study, which included 28 participants with a mean age of 7.3 and a standard deviation of 0.95.

In this study, 28 volunteers were enlisted. Simple random selection was used to choose the participants, and they were then assigned at random to the test room. Each subject was placed in a classroom by the researcher, who also placed a wafer biscuit in front of them to represent marshmallows. The researcher then instructed the participants to wait for 20 minutes before eating the biscuit. They would be rewarded with a second biscuit if they gave in to the temptation. To see if the individual would wait or not, the researcher purposefully waited for 20 minutes.

Three hypotheses were tested in this study; the result revealed that there is a joint influence of age and gender on self-control (R2 = 0.308, F (4, 27) 5.559 =, p <.05), independently gender is not significant (β = .036, t= .217, p>.05) but independently age is significant (β =.555, t= 3.334, p<.05).

Result obtained showed Age has influence on self-control among primary pupils. Hence, as self-control affects every aspect of life, parents should teach their children this skill earlier on in the developmental process so that they can have successful futures.

Keywords: Age, Gender, Self –control and Marshmallow

Postal Address: Department of Psychology, Faculty of the Social Sciences, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

Email Address:

2023, Volume 3, Pages: 74 – 93

Age and Gender Differentials in Body Image Perception Among Nigerian Samples

Chidozie Edwin Nwafor1, Paschal Chukwuma Ugwu2, Bede Enyeobi Ofoma3 & Chukwuemeka Arinzechukwu F. Okoye4


The thought about body image is a normative developmental task that cuts across different age groups. While some may be satisfied with their body, others may get trapped in the negative thoughts about their bodies and may become dissatisfied.

To probe this phenomenon, the study examined ages and gender differentials in body image perception among N = 270 participants selected from Awka metropolis, Anambra state Nigeria. Their gender consists of male = 137, 50.7% and female =133, 49.3%.

Three different age groups were selected: adolescents consisted of n = 90 participants whose age ranged from 14-18 years, early adults n = 90, 22-37 years and middle adults n = 90, 40-55. Body self image questionnaire was used for data collection.

The design of the study was cross-sectional survey and one way Analysis of variance was used for data analyses. The results showed mean scores and standard deviation of the groups (adolescents, m= 123.5778, sd = 14.5; early adults m = 130.1333, sd = 14.26; middle m = 127.5222, sd = 13.39).

The ANOVA summary results showed that body image concern was significant at all age groups at F(df 2; 269) = F 6.279, P =.002. However, there was no gender difference in body image perception. Based on the findings of the study, the researchers recommended measures that will reduce body image dissatisfaction and increase self-esteem, well-being and social approval and optimum cognitive functioning.

Keywords: Age Differential, Gender, Body Image, Perception, Dissatisfaction 

Postal Address: Department of Psychology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State Nigeria

Email Addresses:,,,

2023, Volume 3, Pages: 94 – 125


In Africa, the concept of the self is decentered into a communal mode of identity formation that reflects cultural and social prescriptions. Body image, in this context, is more than just a personal perception of one’s physical appearance. It is a reflection of one’s relationship with the community and the cultural values and beliefs that shape it.

Body image is intimately tied to one’s sense of identity, self-worth, and social status, projecting a dynamic and complex construct that reflects the individual’s internal and external experiences and their place within the broader community.

This chapter is an examination of the evolution of communal body image ideals and practices as the locus of control over the individual’s socialization shifts from parents or communal caregivers to teachers, peers, the media, and eventually the individual.

We explore how these changes have been expressed in different ways, including traditional practices such as special baths to mold babies’ skulls, ward off evil illnesses and evil spirits, traditional markings, and puberty-suppressing practices.

Body image practices in infancy are culturally prescribed and are more focused on health promotion. From adolescence, locus of control centers back to the individual and body image practices are more reflective of modern prescriptions, like skin bleaching, tattooing, and cosmetic physical alterations. The psychosocial implications of these changes, particularly in terms of how they affect individuals’ self-concept, self-esteem, and overall well-being, are briefly discussed.

We propose that an understanding of the changing nature of body image ideals in Africa is essential for promoting positive body image and reducing negative psychosocial outcomes related to body image. The chapter contributes to the broader literature on lifetime body image by highlighting the cultural specificity of body image ideals and the importance of social context in shaping body image experiences.

Keywords: Body Image, Objectification, Gender Differences, Sexualization, Body Functionality.

Postal Address: The Human Connection Lab New Mexico Highlands University Las Vegas

Email Address:

2023, Volume 3, Pages: 126 – 156


Though research on intimate partner violence has received much global attention, there is still a dearth of this research regarding female undergraduates in Nigeria. The present study therefore looked at the influence of men-controlling behavior and self-esteem on male-perpetrated violence among female undergraduates in dating relationships at the University of Ibadan.

The research adopted a survey research design. Three hundred and ten (310) female undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 30 (SD = 5.71) were randomly sampled from a population of undergraduate students at the Queen Elizabeth II Hall, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Validated scales were used for data collection. Pearson product moment correlation, t-test and regression analysis were performed on four hypotheses in the study.

The finding from this study revealed that females who reported low on self-esteem scored significantly higher (=30.76) on physical violence than females who reported high on self-esteem ( =28.36). Furthermore, it was revealed that females who reported low on self-esteem scored significantly higher ( =28.31) on sexual violence than females who reported high on self-esteem ( =26.86). In the same manner, females who reported low on self-esteem scored significantly higher on psychological aggression ( =27.13) than females who reported high on self-esteem ( =29.68). It was confirmed that the collective presence of self-esteem and men-controlling behavior had significant influence on each of the dimension of male-perpetrated violence, thus indicating that men-controlling
behavior (β = .263, t=5.010; p<.01) independently accounted for about 26.3% variance while self-esteem had a contribution of 28.4% variance in male-perpetrated violence.

The authorities of University of Ibadan, especially Students’ Affairs Division should give due consideration to the present finding in the management of intimate partner violence constructs/issues raised in this study.

Keywords: controlling behavior, perpetrated violence, self-esteem, dating relationship

Postal Address: Department of Psychology, Faculty of the Social Sciences, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

Email Address:,

2023, Volume 3, Pages: 157 – 173

Incidents of Depression among Female Adolescent Students in Mixed and Non-Mixed Boarding Secondary Schools in Anambra State: A Comparative Study

Michael O. Okpala1, Martin C. Iwudo2, Fredrick S. Anongo3, Chrismichael J. Mbanugo4, & Jerry, M. Kassam5


The devastating impacts of different levels of depression on adolescents expose them to life-altering consequences that increase the risk for future depressive episodes. Depression among adolescents is often left unmanaged because it is under-reported and unrecognized for it is usually perceived as normal mood swings typical of the adolescence stage.

This study investigated the prevalence of different levels of depression among female adolescent students. Participants were 220 senior secondary school female students that were selected using total population sampling technique from a mixed (110 students) and non-mixed (110 students) boarding secondary schools, in Anambra State, Nigeria.

Their age ranged from 15 years to 18 years, with a mean age of 15.05 and a standard deviation of 1.07. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used for data collection, and the four hypotheses postulated were tested using descriptive statistics.

The result revealed that female adolescent students in non-mixed school had higher prevalence rate of minimal depression (17.7%), while those in mixed school had higher prevalence rates of mild (11.8%), moderate (16.4%), and severe (16.85) depression.

The result did show that female adolescent students in mixed school had lower prevalence rate of minimal depression (5.0%,), while those in non-mixed school had lower prevalence rate of mild (9.5%), moderate (13.6%), and severe (9.1%) depression. Accordingly, we recommend that female adolescent students in boarding schools should be provided with psychological services that will assist them in managing experiences that may lead to depression.

Keywords: Depression, Adolescence, Boarding Secondary School

Postal Addresses:
1Department of Psychology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka
2Marist Comprehensive College, Nteje, Anambra State
3Department of Psychology, Nigerian Army University, Biu
4Department of Psychology, Renaissance University, Enugu
53Department of Psychology, Nigerian Army University, Biu

Corresponding Author’s email Address:

2023, Volume 3, Pages: 174 – 207

Unheard voices: vulnerability experiences of three Yoruba older women in Southwest, Nigeria

*Opeyemi Oyewunmi Ekundayo1, Taofeek Kolawole Aliyu2, Afolabi, M. M3, Akintomide, A. G4, Aransiola, J. O1, & Funmi Togonu-Bickersteth2


This study explored the vulnerability experiences of three older women in Southwest Nigeria, focusing on important developmental indicators and how they transformed into vulnerabilities later in life.

This paper adopted an exploratory design using an inductive approach through in-depth interviews with three older women aged 73, 79 and 83 years and their significant others. Atlas Ti version 8 was used to analyze the data.

The study revealed that the three older women were vulnerable in different ways depending on their socioeconomic status, life experiences, socioeconomic status of their children, human capital, physical and cognitive health, and death of loved ones.

The absence of policies and social safety nets that could safeguard older women from vulnerability was acknowledged as a source of concern by the participants. It is concluded that there is the need for policy intervention for care and protection of older women and, by extension, men in Nigeria.

Keywords: gender; older women; vulnerability; lifespan perspective; Nigeria

Postal Addresses:
1Department of Psychology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
2Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife,Nigeria
3Centre for Gender and Social policy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
4Department of Education foundations and counselling, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Corresponding Author’s email Address: