Articles for Volume 4

2024, Volume 4, Pages: 1 – 21

The present study explored the knowledge and practice that could prevent the impact of teratogens among twenty four (24) pregnant women selected from Awka metropolis and four rural communities in Anambra State, Nigeria.

Their ages ranged from 21 to 38 years, with a mean age of 29.4 and a standard deviation of 4.1. Six key interview questions guided the study. The phenomenological research design was adopted and content analysis was utilized for the study.

The results showed that the study participants have some knowledge of teratogens. There were differences in knowledge between rural and urban participants, high and low education status but not in income status.

There were no differences in locality and income status in understanding how teratogens affect fetus and pregnant women but there was a difference between the highly educated and lowly educated.

It was found that there were differences in level of carefulness observed during pregnancy with regard to locality, education and inome status. Also, responses to the interview questions of preventive measures and who should be involved in the campaign against teratogens showed no differences in education qualifications, locality and income status in respondents’ recommendations.

From the findings, the researcher recommended among others that awareness of teratogens and their consequences should be incorporated into secondary education curriculum in order to prepare the citizens for a better society.

Keywords: Teratogens, prenatal, human development, fetuses, awareness

Postal Address: Department of Psychology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

Email address:


2024, Volume 4, Pages: 22 – 50

Efficacy of Two Cognitive Based Therapies on Social Phobia among in School Adolescents in Oyo State, Nigeria

Segun Oyetunde Babalola1, Olukayode P. Olagunju2, Funmilola B. Olutola3


This study sought to determine the relative effectiveness of two cognitive behavioural therapies: Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) on social phobia among secondary school adolescents. It also investigated the moderating effects of gender and age on the potency of treatment on the dependent measure.

The study adopted the pretest, posttest, control group quasi experimental design with 3 x 2 x 2 factorial matrix. The sample consisted of 160 adolescents randomly selected from 350 students with identified moderate or severe social phobia.

These students were selected from three public secondary schools, one from each of the three senatorial districts of Oyo State, Nigeria. Schools were randomly assigned to treatment groups viz: MBCT (N = 53), ACT
(N = 53) and Control (N = 51).

Davidson’s Social Phobia Inventory (r = 0.85) was adopted and used to capture pretest and posttest measures. Data collected were analyzed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) at 0.05 level of significance.

Treatments had significant effect on adolescents’ social phobia (F (1,159) = 62.97; p < 0.05). MBCT lowest mean ( x = 14.90), followed by ACT ( x = 17.09), while the Control group had highest mean score ( x = 49.62).

The two moderating variables, gender and age of adolescents in this study had no significant effect on social phobia. The study concluded that MBCT and ACT were effective in reducing social phobia among adolescents in secondary schools.

Keywords: Social phobia, mindfulness based cognitive therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy, gender, age

Postal Address:
1All Souls’ Chaplaincy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife
2Department of Educational Foundations and Counselling, Olabisi Onabanjo, University, Ago Iwoye
3Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan

Corresponding Author’s Email Address:
Phone Number: +2348062262318

2024, Volume 4, Pages: 51 – 71


Having surgery is an experience that creates anxiety and fear in individuals which can lead to a failed appointment and refusal to get treated of an illness.

This study therefore examined the psychosocial predictors of reported fear among patients scheduled for surgery in University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

The cross-sectional survey design was adopted to select 209 patients awaiting surgery in the University College Hospital, Ibadan in Nigeria using purposive sampling technique. Four validated scales were used for data collection.

Findings revealed that self-esteem significantly predicted surgical fear among patients scheduled for surgery. Results also showed a significant positive relationship between social support and fear of patients scheduled for surgery.

However, personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability and openness to experience) did not account significantly for variations observed in the reported surgical fear.

It was therefore recommended that nurses, doctors, and other health professionals who are part of the surgical team should be equipped with adequate knowledge on management and reduction of preoperative fear in patients scheduled for surgery.

Keywords: Psychosocial predictors, fear, patients scheduled for surgery

Postal Address:
1,2University of Ibadan, Department of Psychology
3University College Hospital, Department of Surgery
4University of Uyo, Department of Psychology


2024, Volume 4, Pages: 72 – 91


Adolescence is a developmental stage that comprises some basic interactional processes with parents, which can be described as gaining autonomy while maintaining relatedness. Studying the factors that predict bullying tendency among adolescents is especially important while seeking to understand the challenges of this developmental stage that is characterized by different disruptive behaviours.

This study investigated the role of parental involvement, conflict resolution, and perceived social acceptance on bullying tendency among adolescents in secondary school in Egbeda local government, Oyo state, Nigeria. The study makes use of Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory, and Evolutionary Theory, among other theories to explain the construct.

Standardized questionnaires: The Modified Aggression Scale, Parental Involvement Scale, Conflict Resolution Style Inventory and Perceived Acceptance Scale were used to collect data from 649 adolescents. A total of 606 questionnaires were completed and analysed using intercorrelation, t-tests and multiple regression (57.4% female and 42.6% male, average age of 16).

Results revealed a substantial 65.5% prevalence of bullying among the sampled students. Interestingly, while parental involvement didn’t directly predict bullying, a negative correlation was observed between parental involvement and bullying tendencies. Conversely, conflict resolution styles significantly predicted bullying behavior, whereas perceived social acceptance did not. Furthermore, significant gender disparities in bullying were identified.

The findings of this study established that among adolescents, psychosocial factors are significant predictors of bullying behaviours. It is therefore advocated that comprehensive intervention programs involving collaboration among parents, teachers, and professionals like psychologists, counselors, and social workers to effectively mitigate bullying tendencies among adolescents.

Keywords: Adolescents, bullying, parental involvement, conflict resolution, perceived social acceptance

Postal Address: 1,2Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

Email Address:
Phone Number: +2347061839054

2024, Volume 4, Pages: 92 – 111

Impacts of Migration on Family Structure in Ado-Ekiti Nigeria: Implication for Healthy Family Ties

Bolanle Oriola1, Oluremi Hezekiah Abimbola2, Temitayo Victor Fasoranti3, Ezekiel Adeyemi Odedokun4


Migration have direct effect on home and family structure since it causes families to break up. It is not uncommon for children to move out of their parents’ homes into those of friends, relatives, or strangers at a young age.

Many fathers spend the most of the years living far away from their families, including their wives and children. The study adopts a survey design. The purposive sampling technique was utilized to select two hundred respondents (men &women) on whom copies of the questionnaire were administered.

Data from questionnaire were analysed with descriptive and Chi-square analysis. The hypotheses tested revealed that there is a significant relationship between migration and healthy family ties as the calculated value (X2) was 18.842 and the “P” value was 0.004, which was less than the level of significance of 0.05.

The findings also revealed the impacts of migration on healthy family ties as children becoming wayward or suffer care, poor academic performance of the children left behind, criminal behaviors, psychological problem for the wife and children (depression, anxiety), change the family structure and separation or divorce.

The study recommended probable solutions to the effects of migration on family ties in Ado-Ekiti as maintaining frequent communication among couples or Partner, tolerance among the couples and financial support to the family left over.

Keywords: Migration, family ties, family structure, parents and children.

Postal Address: 1,2,3,4Department of Sociology, Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State

Email Addresses:

2024, Volume 4, Pages: 112 – 130


Migration is a potentially stressful process due to the sociocultural changes and the adaptation processes that go along with it. Social support could mitigate the impact of stress and ease the adaptation process and generally contribute to migrants’ overall well-being.

This study examines the influence of migration stress and social support on the psychological wellbeing of Nigerian migrants abroad. A sample of 67 respondents were obtained through snowball sampling technique which consists of 46.3% males, 49.3% females and 3(4.5%) prefer not to disclose their gender in the study.

The survey was conducted with the use of standardized scales designed into Google forms for data collection. Results showed a significant statistical difference in the psychological wellbeing of individuals with high level of social support than those with low levels (Crit-t = 1.96, Cal.t = -1.997, df = 65; p=.043). Furthermore, the result of the second hypothesis showed that the joint contribution of migration stress dimensions on psychological wellbeing was significant. The relative contributions are rejection (β = .646, p<.05), homesickness (β = .533, p<.05), hopelessness (β = .061, p>.05) and discrimination (β = -.371, p<.05).

It was concluded that higher levels of social support improved psychological wellbeing of Nigerian migrants. Based on the findings, it is recommended that there should be intervention policies from the government to curb the negative consequences arising from migration in the country.

Furthermore, psychologists should be seen as important in the chain of migration phases as they could help to improve mental health outcomes among migrants in their host countries.

Keywords: Migration stress, social support, psychological wellbeing, Nigerian migrants, abroad

Postal Address: 1,2Department of Psychology, Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti, Nigeria


2024, Volume 4, Pages: 131 – 138

Migration Aspiration and Wellness: The Undergraduates’ View

Judith Chineye Azikiwe1, Sarah O. Aroso2


Migration is a social construct that affects both human lives and the environment they live in. Most often than not, when one seeks to migrate and is unable to or even succeeds in his/her quest, one faces some mental issues like depression, anxiety, or even guilt or despair.

This is a pilot study that sought to find out the migration aspiration of students and their feeling as they embark on this quest. Also, the study tried to uncover the likely aftermath psychological implications of failure. This study used a cross-sectional research design, whereby ninety-four (94) undergraduates of the Federal University, Oye-Ekiti were sampled.

Results revealed no gender difference in migration aspiration of the participants and willingness of participants to return home. Additionally, only about 53% of the participants sampled are likely to express some forms of psychological disturbances if their migration aspiration were not met.

Thus this study concludes that the main pull and push for migration may actually be to escape the hard reality of life in Nigeria and a quest for greener pasture rather than the hatred or dispassion for the country. And also that intention to migrate is not limited to a gender.

Anyone may decide to migrate based on his/her aspiration. Findings were discussed in line with existing literature on migration and mental health.

Keywords: Migration intentions, planning, expectation, depression, anxiety

Postal Address:
1Department of Psychology, Federal University, Oye-Ekiti
2Department of Psychology and Behavioural Studies, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti

2024, Volume 4, Pages: 139 – 161


There is growing concern regarding the influence of alcohol on behavioral choices, especially in the transportation and occupational settings. Also of concern is gender presence within the male-dominated commercial driving workforce, presenting a knowledge gap on how gender moderates the relationships between alcohol use and sexual behavior among commercial driver.

This research explored the associations between alcohol use, commercial driving occupation, and sexual behavior among commercial drivers in Ekiti State, Nigeria, while considering the moderating role of gender. A total of 150 participants, primarily male (93.3%), mean age of 40.12 years, married (57.3%), with 63.3% who completed secondary education were used for the study. Self-report measures were used to assess alcohol use and hypersexual behavior among 57.3% of the participants. T-tests and multiple regression were
conducted to examine the relationships between these variables.

There was a positive correlation between alcohol use and hypersexual behavior (r = 0.40, p < .05). Individuals reporting high alcohol use (M = 37.78) exhibited significantly higher levels of hypersexual behavior compared to those with low to moderate alcohol use (M = 33.94). Gender differences in hypersexual behavior were statistically significant, with females (M = 41.30) exhibiting significantly higher levels of hypersexual behavior than males (M = 34.29). A 2×2 ANOVA analysis revealed a statistically significant interaction effect between local alcoholic cocktail use and occupation on hypersexual behavior, F(2, 149) = 5.269, p = .006.

Okada riders exhibited significantly lower levels of hypersexual behavior when local alcoholic cocktail use was low to moderate compared to when it was high. It is concluded that alcohol use and hypersexual behaviour are prevalent among commercial drivers which call for intervention by relevant agencies like Federal Road Safety Corps.

Keywords: Alcohol use, commercial driving occupation, sexual behaviour

Postal Addresses:
1Department of Psychology, Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
2Centre for General Studies, Federal University of Health Sciences, Ila, Orangun, Osun, State, Nigeria


2024, Volume 4, Pages: 162 – 191

Influence of Job Insecurity and Attitude of Youth Towards Illegal Migration on Psychological Well-Being of the Society

C. K. Arowosegbe1, Olajide Olufunmilayo Aromoke2, Sarah Onome Aroso3, Imran Abdulbasit Ayomide4


Psychological well-being is the combination of feeling good and functioning effectively, also is about life going well. It is when the individual is happy as well as productive and always ready to take challenges, they have psychological wellbeing balance.

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of job insecurity and attitude of youth towards illegal migration on psychological well-being of the society. A descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population of the study consist of two hundred and forty-five participants which comprised one hundred and forty-five final year students, fifty employed youths, fifty unemployed youths from various universities, youths workers, unemployed youths in Oyo and Ekiti State.

Structured questionnaires were administered to elicit information from the target respondents. To achieve the objectives of the study, four hypotheses were formulated and tested. The data was analyzed using independent t-test and regression analysis.

The result of the study revealed that there is a significant influence of job insecurity on psychology well-being t (196) = -3.879, p<0.05. Also, there was no significantly influence of attitude of youth towards illegal migration on psychological wellbeing t(196) = 1.762, p>.05.

Therefore, job insecurity has a significant influence on psychological well-being while attitude of youth towards illegal migration did not significantly influence psychological wellbeing F(3,191)= .177, p>.05. The result also revealed that there is a significantly gender difference of youth towards illegal migration on psychological well-being being of the society t (196) = – 2.039, p<.05.

In conclusion, job insecurity significantly influences psychological well-being and that gender differences in youth towards illegal migration can significantly affect psychological well-being. Based on the above findings, it was recommended that government and organizations should consider implementing measures to reduce job insecurity among employees to promote better psychological well-being.

Keywords: Job insecurity, illegal migration and psychology well-being

Postal Addresses:
1,3,4 Department of Psychology and Behavioural Studies, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti
2 Department of Social Development, School of General and Administrative Studies, Federal Polytechnic Ede, Osun State

Corresponding Author’s email Address:
Phone number: +2347036739008

2024, Volume 4, Pages: 192 – 218


This study addresses the psychological well-being of Nigerians residing in the United Kingdom, focusing on cultural identity conflicts, experiences of discrimination, and their impact on mental health. A sample of 384 respondents, obtained through snowball sampling, reflects diverse gender distribution (e.g., males: 55%, females: 45%). The average age of the
respondents was 32.5 years (SD = 5.2).

The survey was conducted via Google Forms, utilizing a questionnaire featuring standardized scales to collect data. Analysis employed Pearson correlation, multiple regression, and independent sample t-tests (at a 0.05 significance level). Results revealed a significant positive correlation between cultural identity conflicts and perceived discrimination (r = 0.64, p < 0.001).

Specifically, individuals experiencing more pronounced cultural identity conflicts are more likely to report heightened levels of discrimination. Furthermore, those subjected to increased discrimination exhibit elevated psychological distress, anxiety, and depression. Moreover, a negative correlation surfaces between cultural identity conflicts and mental health outcomes (r = -0.52, p < 0.001), signifying that greater cultural identity conflicts are associated with heightened psychological distress, anxiety, and depression.

However, contrary to the initial hypothesis, effective coping strategies did not mitigate psychological distress, anxiety, and depression in the presence of discrimination. Conversely, individuals with robust social support networks demonstrated resilience, experiencing fewer adverse mental health outcomes despite confronting significant cultural identity conflicts.

The findings hold substantial implications for mental health professionals, policymakers, and organizations working with immigrant populations. It is anticipated that these insights will inform the creation of more targeted and effective interventions, ultimately improving the mental health outcomes of Nigerian immigrants in the United Kingdom.

Keywords: Cultural identity conflict, discrimination, mental well-being, japa, immigrants, UK

Postal Addresses:
1,2 Federal University, Oye Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

Phone number: +2348034902650
ORCID: 0000-0002-7279-4853