Articles for Volume 1

2019, Volume 1, Pages: 1-7


Self-concept is an important construct in understanding an individual adaptive capacity and ability to cope successfully with daily challenges. There is a general self-concept that could relate positively or negatively with other constructs, however, self-concept is also conceived as a multidimensional construct whereby each sub-scale is related more significantly with other constructs with similar theoretical conceptualisation. Following the later line of thought, the present study examined the differential relationships between a multidimensional self–concept and academic achievement among secondary school pupils. The participants for the study were two hundred and fifty-one senior secondary school students (boys = 127 and girls = 124; ages ranged from 14 to 17 years, M = 15.7 years, SD = 1.24). Data for the study was collected with a multidimensional questionnaire (Short Version of Self- Description

Questionnaire II Marsh, 1990) and Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA). A combination of ex post-facto and correlation design was utilised. The results of the analysis using Fisher’s r to z transformation showed that academic self-concept domains related significantly more than non-academic self-concept domains with academic achievement and the correlation within academic self-concepts and academic achievement did not differ significantly. Based on this result it was suggested that school psychologists, guidance and counsellors should focus more on behaviour interventions (e.g. Academic Self Enhancement Training) which could boost academic self-concept and academic behaviours.

Keywords: Academic achievement, self-concept, academic behaviour

Postal Address: Department of Psychology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka.

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2019, Volume 1,  Pages: 8-13

2019, Volume 1, Pages: 14-24


The study examines the influence of diversity, relationship satisfaction and job satisfaction on organisational commitment of NSCDC officers of Oyo state command. A cross-sectional method was adopted for this study. Total number of 247 respondents was selected using convenience sampling technique. The instruments for data collection are Job satisfaction scale (CSI), Mivile-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale-short form (MGUDS), Couple satisfaction index and Mayer and Allen commitment scale. T-test and Multiple regression was used for statistical analysis. Findings revealed that there exists significant job satisfaction differences in organisational commitment [t (244) = 15.26; p<.05]

Also, there was significant diversity differences in organisational commitment [t (244) = 14.41; p<.05]. In addition, there was significant relationship-satisfaction differences in organisational commitment [t (244) = 5.85; p<.05]. Collectively, job satisfaction, relationship satisfaction and diversity predicted organisational commitment {R = .86, R2 = .73; F (3, 242) = 222.53; p<.01}; while only job satisfaction (β = .45, t = 8.25; p<.05) and diversity (β = .44, t = 7.35; p<.05) had significant independent influence on organisational commitment. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that effort should be put in place to enhance job satisfaction; officers should be engaged in diversity enlightenment activities by the corps; and the corps should engage the service of a psychologist for timely psychological inoculati ons on handling relationship issues.

Keywords: Diversity, relationship satisfaction, job satisfaction, organisational commitment and NSCDC

Postal Address: Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan
Email Address:,

2019, Volume 1, Pages: 25-39

Meaning in Life across the Lifespan in a Nigerian Population

Rachel B. Asagba & Samson F. Agberotimi.


Meaning in life has been demonstrated as a strong component and predictor of well-being. There is however sparse empirical study regarding this construct among a Nigerian population. This study therefore investigated meaning in life across developmental stages and examined gender difference in a Nigerian population. A cross-sectional survey with ex-post facto design was utilised. Five hundred and seventy six (576) respondents whose ages range between 16 and 87 years ( = 28.65, SD = 18.61) participated in the study. Data was collected with a structured questionnaire consisting of demographic information, and measures of meaning in life, life orientation and life satisfaction. Correlation and independent sample t-test at 0.05 significant level was used to analyse the data. We found significant differences in meaning in life across age groups (F (5,566)= 2.74, p < 0.05). Respondents of age group 30 – 39 years reported the highest meaning in life ( = 51.33), while people aged 60 years and above reported the lowest meaning in life.

There was no significant difference between males and females on meaning orientation (t (574) = -0.84, p >0.05). There was significant mild relationship between presence of meaning and search for meaning in life (r = .18, p <0.05), moderate relationship between presence of meaning in life and life orientation (r = 0.37, p <.01). Meaning in life was, however, not found to be significantly related to life satisfaction. The present study affirmed a higher meaning orientation among individuals of younger age groups compared to those of older age groups. It was therefore recommended that future studies may investigate other factors that may be responsible for the findings of the present study.

Keywords: Meaning in life, well-being, life-span, Nigerian population

Postal Address: Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan
Email Address:,

2019, Volume 1, Pages: 40-50


Over the years, increasing attention has been given to factors contributing to quality of life, well-being and general sense of belongingness of individuals with health challenges, with little or no focus on sense of belongingness among adolescents in secondary schools which has been recently researched to have effecton their health. The study, therefore, investigated psychosocial factors as predictors of sense of belongingness among secondary school students in Ibadan. The study adopted the cross-sectional survey research design and purposively gathered data from selected 238 secondary school students. More of the respondents 123 (51.7%) were males, while others 115 (48.3%) were females. As regards age distribution, more of the respondents 179 (75.2%) indicated to be less than 16 years old, while others 59 (24.8%) indicated to be 16 years old and above. Three hypotheses were tested using t-test for independent samples.

Findings revealed that students with low level of peer pressure reported higher sense of belongingness than those with high peer pressure [t (236) = 13.01; P<.01]. However, social support (family, friends and significant others) had neither joint nor independent influence on sense of belongingness [R = .21; R2 = .04; F (4, 234) = 1.89; P>.05]. Further analysis revealed that, when combined, coping styles (problem and emotion focused) accounted for about 22% variance in sense of belongingness [R = .47; R2 = .22; F (2, 235) = 33.27; P<.01]; only problem focused coping independently predicted sense of belongingness (β = .38; t = 3.47; P<.01). The study has implication on peer pressure as a significant determinant of sense of belongingness among secondary school students. Therefore, secondary school managements, parents as well as guardians should endeavour to monitor their children/wards’ peers as they transit from childhood to adolescence. The quality of the group of friends they keep is important. This will assist in controlling the pressure that they feel from their friends.

Keywords: Sense of belongingness, psychosocial factors, peer pressure, social support, coping styles

Postal Address: Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan
Email Address:,,

2019, Volume 1, Pages: 51-60


Parental psychological divorce can make the processes of cognitive, psychosocial and emotional transformations difficult during adolescence. There is dearth of literature on this phenomenon – psychological divorce and related factors in Nigeria. Hence, this study investigated the extent to which parental psychological divorce influenced emotional wellbeing of in -school adolescents in Ondo state. A cross-sectional design was adopted. Using convenient sampling technique, a total of 250 (male=101, female=149) adolescents were selected from schools in Ondo-West local government, Ondo State, Nigeria. Parental Psychological divorce was measured using the Marital stress inventory by Omoluabi (1994). Emotional wellbeing was measured using the State-trait anxiety inventory developed by Gorsuch and Spielberger (1989) and Beck Depression inventory by Berk, Brown and Steers (1996). Four hypotheses were formulated and tested using ANOVA and Independent T-test.

The result indicated that Parental psychological divorce had a significant influence on emotional wellbeing with adolescents from psychologically divorced parents significantly scoring lower on emotional wellbeing than those from intact home: Depression [F (1,248) = 42.60, p < .05, t (248) = -.6.53, p < .01 ] and Anxiety [F (1,248) = 129.74, p < .05, t (248) = -.11.39, p < .01 ]. Sex also had significant influence with female adolescents from psychologically divorced homes scoring higher than their male counterparts on depression and anxiety [F (1,246) = 5.12, p < .05], [F (1,246) = 11.07, p< .05] respectively. Finally, independent t-test revealed that age group of the adolescents had no significant influence on Depression but did on anxiety [t (248) = -2.06, p < .05], while the mean values of the older adolescents on depression and anxiety were generally higher than the younger ones. Based on these findings, it was recommended that counselling and family therapies on problem solving, communication and marriage fitness be readily available to couples who are going through psychological divorce processes to redress the situation and avoid legal divorce, while supportive parenting strategies are encouraged for the adolescents especially the older ones.

Keywords: Parental psychological divorce, emotional wellbeing- anxiety and depression

Postal Address: Department of Pure and Applied Psychology, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba
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2019, Volume 1, Pages: 61-69

The Role of Personal Values and Self-Esteem on Assertiveness in Women

Olabimpe Ajoke Olatunji, Owoseni Omosolape Olakitan & Racheal Abosede Afolabi.


There is dearth of research on the predictors of assertiveness across the life-span of women. This study examined the predictive abilities of self-esteem (overall evaluation a person places on self which could be positive or negative) and personal value (beliefs, goals and standards an individual hold s as being important) on assertiveness (an open and sincere interpersonal communication without violating others’ right) in a sample of 300 Yoruba women from South-West, Nigeria. The age range of the participants was between 18 and 65 years.

Data was collected using structured psychological tests which included Assertiveness Behavioral Assessment Scale (ABAS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale and the Personal Value Scale. Results indicated that personal values and self-esteem interactively predicted assertiveness, F (2, 280) = 6.21; p = .002, R2 = .042. However, only personal values (β = .21, p = .001) independently predicted assertiveness while self-esteem (β = -.01, p = .91) did not. Based on the findings, it was suggested that quality values personal to individual should be incorporated in psychotherapies targeting assertiveness among women.

Keywords: Assertiveness, personal value, self-esteem, Yoruba women, Nigeria

Postal Address: Department of Psychology, Federal University, Oye-Ekiti
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2019, Volume 1, Pages: 70-84


Premarital sex is sexual intercourse engaged in by persons who are not married. It is generally used in reference to individuals who are presumed to be not yet of marriageable age, or between adults who will presumably marry eventually, but who are engaging in sexual activity prior to marriage. More than one in every 20 youth contracts a curable STDs and more than half of all new HIV infections occur in people between the ages of 15 to 24 years as a result of involvement in premarital sex. Therefore, this study explores the influence of parenting styles and peer pressure on adolescents’ involvement in premarital sex in Ibadan North Local Government Area, Oyo State. In this study, Diana Baumrind’s Parenting Typology was uses to explain parenting style, and Theory of Reasoned Action was used to explain involvement in premarital sex. The study utilised a cross-sectional survey design for 150 participants with a mean age of 16.02 and a standard deviation of 1.52. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaire which comprises four sections.

Section A measured demographic information, Section B measured parenting style, Section C measured peer pressure and Section D measured engagement of adolescents in pre -marital sex. Three hypotheses were tested in this study and the result revealed that some parenting styles (permissive, authoritative and authoritarian) and peer pressure jointly encouraged adolescents to engage in premarital sex (R2 = 0.108, F(4,145) =4.403, P <.05). Independently a result showed that a uthoritative parenting style (β = -.204, t= -2.529; P<.05) and peer pressure (β = .216, t = 2. 651; P<.05) were significant, while permissive parenting style and authoritarian parenting style were not significant. It was concluded that parenting style and peer pressure have influence on involvement in premarital sex by adolescents. Therefore, parents should adopt authoritative parenting style which will discourage adolescents from involving themselves in premarital sex.

Keywords: Parenting style, premarital sex, and peer pressure

Postal Address: Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan
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2019, Volume 1, Pages: 85-100


A review of informal caregivers’ needs within palliative care has shown that there seems to be a distinct risk of psychological distress for family caregivers during their caregiving role. This study, therefore, provides insight into caregiving burden and potential buffers among relatives of cancer patients in the University College Hospital (UCH) Ibadan. The study adopted a cross-sectional descriptive survey design, in which total enumeration via purposive sampling technique was utilised in obtaining 80 caregivers for the study. A structured questionnaire was utilised in eliciting relevant information relating to the participants of the study. Hypotheses were formulated in line with the study objectives and tested using appropriate statistics at 0.05 level of significance All of the cancer patient caregivers in this study reported high levels (82.5%) to severe levels (17.5%) of caregiving burden. Social support from friends (β=-.355; p<.05) and emotion-based coping (β= -315; p<.05) emerged as significant negative predictors of caregiving burden among caregivers of cancer patients in UCH.

There was no significant difference in the caregiving burden between male and female caregiving relatives of cancer patient in UCH [t(78)=.547; p>.05]. There was a significant influence of age on levels of caregiving burden among relatives of cancer patients in University College Hospital [F(3,76)=2.367; p<.05] with results suggesting that younger caregivers of cancer patients reported higher caregiving burden than their older counterparts. To that end, the study recommends a transformation in the policies and practices affecting the role of famili es in the support and care of terminally ill patients.

Omonigho Simon Umukoro, Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan
Abiodun Musbau Lawal, Department of Psychology, Federal University, Oye-Ekiti

2019, Volume 1, Pages: 101-113


Dropping out of school is a powerful risk factor that can lead to the incredible loss of human potentials and insecurity for the nation; it can also have life-long consequences, especially on education, career and health. The main objective of this study is to explore borderline intelligence as at-risk population for school dropouts. The specific objectives are to investigate whether borderline intelligence is a predisposing factor for school dropouts in South West, Nigeria and compare gender differences among adolescent school dropouts based on borderline intelligence. 565 school dropouts from the three states Lagos, Ogun and Osun States participated in the study and they responded to the Raven’s Standard Progressive Matric es that were designed to assess educative ability of different ages.

The result found significant differences in the cognitive abilities of the school dropouts. Borderline intelligence was significantly represented in the sample and gender was found to be insignificant, thus implying that both male and female are equally at risk of dropping out of school. The study found that the incidence of school dropouts in South West, Nigeria is heightened by borderline intelligence. Government at all levels should seek the help of psychologists for proper assessment as early as possible, to reduce the incessant increase in the population of adolescents that are out of school in South West Nigeria.

Keywords: Borderline intelligence, cognitive abilities, s chool dropout, adolescents

Postal Address: Department of Psychology, University of Lagos
Email Address:

2019, Volume 1, Pages: 115-125


The study investigated the influence of culture and gender in predicting mental health problems among Egbura people of Toto L.G.A of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The total number of 2,050 subjects participated in this study. They represent the total population of the study areas, they are drawn from five communities of Toto local government areas (Tudu-uku, Gadabuke, Shafan-kotto, Ugya and Umasha). The participant consists of people within the age of 30 years and above, and which are residing in the locality for not less than 10years and can understand and write in English language. Occupation and religions are not barriers in this study. Convenient sampling method was adopted for selecting the participant. Two hypotheses were tested. First, there will be a significant effect of culture on the perception of mental health among Egbura people of Toto locality in Nigeria. Secondly, there will be a Gender difference in the perception of culture and mental health among Egbura people of Toto locality in Nigeria.

The results obtained revealed a significant positive perception of mental health on perception of depression (MD = 13.18; SD = 6.11 P<.05); perception on paraphilia (MD = 16.34; SD = 2.61 P<.05); perception on stress (MD = 12.11; SD = 3.71 P>.05); but significant negative perception on the use of substances for cure (MD = 12.86; SD = 3.15 P<.05); as well as perception on neurosis (MD = 17.23; SD = 7.16 P<.05); on the mental health. This partially confirms the stated hypothesis, hence, was retained in this study. Second result revealed that there is no significant difference (t= -.43; df=72; p >.05) between Men (M=34.71) and Female (M=34.24) on the perception of cultural practice on mental health among the participants. Base on the result therefore, the hypothesis is rejected.

Keywords: Egbura people, cultural practice, mental illness, mental health

Postal Address: Department of Psychology, Nasarawa State University, Keffi
Email Address:,